Sunday, October 28, 2012

Electrical Coercive Fields

Electrical spintronic devices can be aligned to a polarization field across a recombinant beam epitaxy using electrical field manipulation. The structure of the lattice spin state is related to the quantum lattice constants and yields magnetization factors associated with spin injected interference profiles.

When calculating the polarization factors of the electrical device, the waveguide must first be taken into account. The waveguide induces a structural effective field based on the collection angle to which the polarization amplitude reaches. As the magnetic field reaches hysteretic independence, a deviation from Brillouin behavior is reflected onto the electrical spintronic device and specific elements become paramagnetic based on their polarization hysteresis.

Increasing polarization layers within the electrical spintronic device show magnetic circular dichroism when exposed to the hysteresis and this can be measured by passing luminesence samples through an appropriate connected semiconductor.

The relevant band structure of the electrical field alternates between hydrogen junction structure fields, showing a quantum field stability related to the spin transport mechanism. The difference between this and a higher energy junction structure field is that the equilibrium regions are derived from the valence bands of the transport interfaces rather than their cleaved facets.

The band structure can be imprinted onto the electrical field generated by the recombinant beam epitaxy using simple spin injection and nonvolatile electrical control of the logic integration.

If the electrical device has a lattice composition with a crystalline matrix, the ion motion displays a rotational disorder with interconnected lattice hopping. The lattice hopping progrades into a polycrystalline bulk structure and this in turn has a considerable effect on the hysteretic independence of the Brillouin deviation.

The electrical field that has undergone primary hysteresis will disengage from its exterior lattice motions after the crystalline compounds have melted. The field then reaches a magnetic polarization comparable to that generated from alkyl chain distortion under a carbonized phase transition.

Conductivity of the electrical current across the utilized materials reaches a critical matrix phase for specific ions, including lithium, and this impacts the electrical spintronic device by substituting key cation phase elements with their lower order matrix equivalents.

A quantum derivation of the spin-polarized electrical spin injection has an approaching state that gives coherence to the polarization distances involved. This implies that electrical etching of the chemicals undergoing the rapid hysteretic transitions associated with a recombinant epitaxy have been defined by their material properties. These properties are modified by the polarization to produce a series of mechanisms that lends the field their coercive nature and fully defines the alignment

Sunday, October 21, 2012

Top Notable Inventions of Mankind

Speaking of modern patents and technologies it is hard to say about their importance and real necessity. In fact, most of the unique technics and inventions were made during entire history of humanity that remain essential till nowadays. There is a whole list of discoveries that play an important role in contemporary social livelihood.

1. The appearance of written language is naturally vital to date regardless it was introduced 4 thousand years ago. In previous years primitive humans had nothing but to exchange with gestures and signs to communicate. Therefore, emergence of the first written inscriptions significantly enhanced the development of mankind socially and culturally.

2. Naturally, it is also necessary to note book publishing industry that appeared in the 15th century. It was performed for the first time by Johannes Guttenberg, who is responsible for appearance of movable type machine and, therefore, the start of Renaissance epoch in Europe.

3. Telephone was initially recognized as one of the scientific and technological miracles. Alexander Graham Bell from Boston immediately received the related patent on March 10th 1876.

4. And what about the radio? There are a lot of debates in scientific circles concerning who is the real author of this invention, but most of the historians agree that the honor belongs to Alexander Popov, outstanding Russian inventor. In 1895 he demonstrated a wireless telegraphy apparatus and became the first person to send a telegram to the world, the text of which was composed of two words "Heinrich Hertz." However, the first patent was given to Italian radio engineer Guglielmo Marconi.

5. Thomas Alva Edison is responsible for the entire electricity revolution in global industry and livelihood. In fact, he is an inventor of the first electric lamp in 1879. However, in 1873 Alexander Nikolayevich Lodygin, Russian technologist, invented the first lamp using volfram threads.

6. Thomas Edison has also contributed a lot in the development of cinematography and photography industry. He introduced peep show - the device demonstrating an effect of pictures in motion. It has inspired the Lumiere brothers to create movies. The device was demonstrated in 1891.

7. Microscope device, a pillar of every biology and genetic research nowadays, has appeared in 1590 for the first time. It is associated with work of famous Dutch technologist Sacharias Jansen, engaged in optic studies. In addition, the first investigations on microscope were conducted by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek in the 17th century.

8. And, of course, the Internet! The global network was introduced by Sir Timothy John «Tim» Berners-Lee in 1989, which nowadays appears to be an essential part in lives of humans. By the way, the "Sir" title was given to him for this very discovery.

Sunday, October 14, 2012

How Much Time Should I Invest In Studying Organic Chemistry?

As an organic chemistry tutor, one of the questions often asked by my students is as follows:

How much time should I invest in my Organic Chemistry studies?

And while the answer will be different for every single student, I do have a 'ballpark' figure. If you are taking organic chemistry for the first time, in the Spring or Fall semester, you should expect and aim to invest a minimum of 10 study hours per week.


Organic chemistry is not easy, and I have a series of recommended steps to help you understand and properly master the information. But if you approach this course as you did any other course, perhaps with the intention of studying just 2 hours a week think again. If you are the type of student who only studies the night before an exam.


Organic chemistry is a difficult course containing many vital concepts and foundation topics that have to be studied and mastered slowly over time. The concepts are all connected, which means you will be constantly building upon the foundation of the material you have studied beforehand.

But TEN hours a week, is there even enough material for so much study?

Of course there is the first and most important study step; reading the book prior to attending lecture. If you attempt to understand the information by hearing it for the first time in lecture you will be lost within five minutes.

Instead, I recommend that you expose yourself to the material prior to attending the lecture. You may not understand much of what you are reading, but at least you will have this initial exposure.

Once your professor begins explaining concepts, hopefully the information will start falling into place.

Now that you have attended the lecture, you are likely still confused about some of the topics, and so it is time to read the textbook AGAIN.

This time however, don't just skim the information. Instead you should take the time to read through each paragraph carefully. Ensure that you understand every topic mentioned, and that you are able to follow every practice example given.

Most textbooks will include a practice problem or two after each concept taught. Test yourself by doing this problem. If you get it correct, AND understand every aspect of the question, then you can move on. If you are not fully confident with the material so far, go back and review again.

This initial chapter study process should take you a few hours minimum.

The next step is to do the practice problems at the end of the chapter to ensure that you are able to apply what you have studied to different formats of the question.

Rinse and Repeat (meaning do this all over again. Read, practice, end of chapter problems)

Sometimes your textbook is not enough, that's where external resources come in handy. Some of these include Organic Chemistry Tutorial Videos practice quizzes and more.

Or go the full mile and hire an organic chemistry tutor to help you break down and understand the concepts in depth as you are learning them in class.

Sunday, October 7, 2012

Ark Of The Covenant Mystery Solved By Investigative Dowsing

The ability to dowse is a God given gift. It is generally accepted that we were endowed with the dowsing ability to insure man's survival. Simply giving us the ability to find water was enough to justify affording man this important tool.

Because dowsing has unlimited uses, and there are two basic forms of dowsing, it is well suited to answer questions like what happened to the Ark of the Covenant, the Holy Stone Tablets it contained, and resolve other Biblical and Archeological mysteries.

One form of dowsing allows us to ask any question that can be answered with a yes, no, or a true or false answer. Because so much has been written by scholars about such subjects as the Ark of the Covenant, a skilled dowser only needs to pose questions around each theory or supposition that has been put forth to determine if any factual truths emerge. Once a truth is uncovered within the theories and suppositions of scholars, the questions can be bracketed down to hone in on important smaller details. With enough clues, and by formulating the proper questions, a dowser can paint an accurate picture of what transpired in any time frame.

Another form of dowsing is known as map dowsing. Map dowsing can be used to find any material object as long as enough information is available to initiate a search for the location of the object on a map. It is often used to locate water, oil and gas deposits, missing persons, lost buried or hidden treasures, prehistoric river beds and shore lines, earthquake faults, sunken treasure ships, and lost items, just to name a few.

Where is the Ark of The Covenant?

Dowsing Research Results:

The original Ark of the Covenant no longer exists. During the Babylonian invasion in 586 BC, while Jerusalem was plundered, the Ark was found by the invading soldiers, stripped of its gold, and discarded along with the Holy Stone Tablets it contained.

After five years passed, the Babylonian hierarchy, apparently concerned about the destruction of the original Ark, commissioned a replica of the Ark to be made. It is this replica of the Ark of the Covenant that eventually found its way to the Church of Saint Mary of Zion in Axum, Ethiopia.

What Happened to The Holy Stone Tablets in The Ark of the Covenant?

Dowsing Research Results:

Four days after the desecration of the Ark took place, the tablets were recovered from the ruins of the temple, and were taken on a journey across the desert. Unfortunately, they never reached their destination. They are buried under eighteen feet of windblown sand one hundred and twenty miles South East of Jerusalem. Indications are that the individual transporting the tablets, and his camel, perished from lack of water, or befell some other misfortune. In any case, the tablets could possibly be found and recovered using a modern, sophisticated ground-penetrating radar system. In order to determine who actually recovered and saved the tablets from destruction, a dowser would only need to have a list of potential names to dowse from.

In Conclusion:

I don't know what caused me to deviate from my normal dowsing activities to invest time in this project, as I have never had any curiosity or interest in subjects of this nature. I can only attribute my involvement to unsolicited Divine Inspiration.

"ABOUT THE AUTHOR": Jerry Nokes with over thirty-five years of dowsing experience, through constant practice and a dedication to perfection, is responsible for discovering previously unknown innovations relating to the science of map dowsing.

Tuesday, October 2, 2012

The Life Cycle of the Red Fire Ant

Anyone who has spent significant time in the southern United States has come into contact or been warned about the fire ant. These little creatures bite and leave an itchy and uncomfortable mark where the bite occurred. These ants are widespread and native to the United States. They occupy much of the southern United States from Florida, up to the Carolinas, and then all the way west to California.

The life cycle of the fire ant is similar to most other ants. The life cycle of these insects follows the pattern of egg, larva, pupae, and finally the adult ant. While individual ant life cycle is an interesting point, there is a broader issue of the life cycle of the colony. Ants operate as a collective and therefore the life cycle of their colony is an interesting study.

There are multiple types of ants within a colony that all serve different functions. The most notable of the types of ants in a colony is the queen. The queen is the largest ant in the colony and their primary function is breeding. The queen can produce up to 3,500 eggs in a day and survive around 6 or 7 years. This means that a single queen fire ant can produce over 8 million eggs in here lifetime.

Queen ants are able to produce so many offspring that they may fill a nest. Queens have been observed leaving the nest with a set of workers in order to form new colonies. The queen's natural instinct is to expand and this helps to facilitate that instinct. These new colonies are usually very close to the first one and can lead to quite the issue if these colonies are around a person's yard.

Males or drones serve only one purpose in an ant colony, which is mating with the queen. The drone ants have a short lifespan, typically around 4 or 5 days. The drone ants have wings, similar to queen ants, but the difference is that these wings are permanent.

The third type of ant in a colony is the worker ant. These ants are sterile females and have a myriad of functions within the colony. The workers serve as the defense against predators and build the nests. Most of the ants people meet are worker ants that are out in search of food or supplies used for maintaining the nests. The workers are able to build very intricate nests that have many different areas for adult ants and nursery-type areas for ants that are not adults yet. The average lifespan of the worker ants is around five weeks.

While fire ants are a serious pest issue in the south, they can easily be dealt with. Due to their prevalence, many pest control companies are experts at seeking out the issues with fire ants and dealing with them accordingly. Additionally, fire ants are not deadly unless the human has an allergy present, although the stings are very uncomfortable. If you feel as though you have a serious issue with fire ants, contact your local pest control company immediately.

Monday, October 1, 2012

Halogenation of Alkenes

While studying alkene reaction mechanisms in organic chemistry, you are very likely to come across the halogenation mechanism.

This mechanism is different from the standard alkene addition reactions given the unique nature of the halogen bridge formed as an intermediate of this reactions

Which Molecules Are Involved in Halogenation of Alkenes
Halogenation of alkenes involves the addition of a dihalide onto a carbon to carbon double bound. Dihalides are molecules composed of two atoms of the same halogen bound to each other including fluorine, chlorine, bromine, and iodine.

How Do These Molecules Reaction
The carbons involved in the doubled bound alkene are sp2 hybridized, meaning trigonal planar or flat. The double bond resides in the overlapping 'p' orbital which sits well above and well below the flat molecule. Having the electrons stick out so much from the molcule allows them to attack a nearby molecule as desired

A dihalogen is composed of two equal electronegative atoms. While the bond between them is a non-polar bond, meaning there is equal sharing of electrons, there does exist the phenomenon of induced polarity which makes the molecule temporarily polar

The concept of induced polarity occurs when a negative group such as the pi electrons get too close the halogen molecule. The pi electrons temporarily repel the electrons of the closer halogen onto it's bound partner, making it temporarily partial positive, and the other atom partial negative.

This brief change in polarity induces enough of a partial charge to cause the pi electrons on the alkene to break out of their double bond and attack the halogen.
The bond between the two halides collpase as a result and break onto the second halogen leaving it as a negative ion in solution

The Halogen Bridge
After the pi bond breaks, one of the original attacking carbons will be bound to the halogen, and the second one will have a positive charge due to the loss of the pi bond.
The halogen, while neutral and happy to be bound to the carbon, is still an electronegative atom and will reach out with one lone pair of electrons to attack the positive neighboring carbocation

This second attack by the halogen leaves the atom bound to both carbons. Of the 8 original halide electrons, 4 are now involved in bonding, 4 are found as 2 lone pairs, and the resulting atom has a positive charge. This phenomenon is called a halogen bridge and is not very stable. Some of the negativity is passed onto the connected carbon atoms making them both partially positive

Attacking the Carbon-Halogen Bridge
The free negative halide in solution, which came from the original dihalide molecule is attracted to the partially positive carbon atoms. The halogen bridge sitting on one side of the molecule completely crowds that area and thus prevents the second halide from attacking from the same side.

Instead, the negative halide is forced to attack the partially positive carbons from the opposite side as the halogen bridge. This attack on the carbon atom breaks the halogen bridge by kicking the electrons off the attacked carbon and onto the first halogen atom.

Charge of the Final Product
Having a negative halogen attacking a positive carbon-halogen group cancels out all the charges yielding a neutral final product. This type of reaction is considered an 'anti' reaction given that the second group attacked from the opposite side as the first group.

Structure of the Final Product
The final product is an alkane with two halogen atoms bound to neighboring carbons. These former sp2 carbons are now sp3 hybridized, each is bound to four groups, and has a tetrahedral conformation